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3D Printing Formulations

New!  New Oligomers for 3D Printing Inks

Abstract: The present work addresses a strong market demand for oligomers for 3D printing formulations. Structure-property relationships in a new family of oligomers will be discussed. Effect of oligomers on oxygen inhibition, coefficient of thermal expansion, heat distortion temperature, shrinkage, and color stability will be revealed. Some of the formulations based on the various new oligomers are very fast curing and prone to substantially less oxygen inhibition. They demonstrate good adhesion to different substrates and possess very low water absorption characteristics.

 




Cellulose Esters

Next Generation UV-Curable Cellulose Esters

Abstract: New generation of UV-curable cellulose ester additives and binders provide improved surface hardness and solvent resistance in hard coating and ink applications. UV-curable cellulose ester additives do not disturb clarity and therefore they are excellent additives for clear, very low haze coatings and glossy inks. Their effect on rheology, adhesion, and chemical resistance are discussed in this study.

 




Coatings

Scratch and Abrasion Resistant UV Coatings: Various Approaches

Abstract: UV-curable nanocomposite coatings of different appearances and properties were prepared and evaluated. Selection of nanoparticles, oligomers, and monomers were made based on market demand of UV-curable urethane acrylate for adhesives and coatings. Targeted improvement areas included antiabrasiveness, tensile strength, hardness, optical clarity, and dimensional stability, while minimizing adhesion loss and elongation. Preparation method of nanoparticle/ oligomer/monomer was chosen in consideration of cost effectiveness and, facility accessibility for manufacturing. Functionalized nanoparticles, multifunctional oligomers, and multifunctional monomers were used in developing appropriate products. A number of samples showed significant improvement of antiabrasion, dimension stability, and good adhesion.

 

 

New UV-Curable High Refractive Index Oligomers

Abstract: The present work addresses a market demand for high refractive index (nD) coatings. We prepared organic UV-curable oligomers with nD > 1.6. We found a novel way to prepare sulfur-containing UV-curable high nD oligomers of melamine and urethane acrylates. Refractive indices of the synthesized oligomers were between 1.552 and 1.615. Cure of the oligomers led to films with nD =1.559 and 1.660. A wide variety of mechanical properties for UV-cured oligomers can be obtained with the facile synthesis methods used.

 

 

Physical Properties of Cured Coatings

Abstract: Usually a cured coating is a thin film, which can be separated from a support. Formation of this film is the culmination of the whole work of preparing of a formulation and it’s UV-cure (or cure by other radiation). In this paper we will talk only about cured coatings (films). The study of physical/mechanical properties of films is the subject of material science. We look for coatings with useful properties, such as high elongation to break, abrasion resistance, hardness, etc. The enhanced or improved properties of a cured coating should be explained in every case: one customer needs soft elastomers, another customer needs hard coatings with low elongation to break, one needs hydrophilicity (good wetting by water), another needs hydrophobicity (water repellency), etc. Coatings have different properties: electric conductivity or lack thereof, transmission of radio waves or not, shiny or matte, there are different modern smart coatings. The traditional role of coatings and paints is the protection of substrates. We will briefly consider only some basic physical properties in this memo.

 

 

Radiation-Curable Oligomers with High Refractive Index

Abstract: The present work addresses a strong market demand for antireflection (AR) coatings. AR coatings consist of at least one thin film with a high refractive index (nD). We prepared organic radiation (UV)-curable oligomers with nD > 1.6. We found a novel way of preparation of sulfur containing UV-curable high nD oligomers, based on melamine and urethane acrylates. nD of synthesized liquid oligomers was 1.56 ÷1.62. UV-cure of oligomers led to 1-5% increase in nD. Coatings based on these oligomers are easy to cure; they demonstrate good adhesion to different substrates and possess excellent mar-resistance and anti-fog properties.

 

 

Dendritic Oligomers

New!  Dendritic Oligomers for LED-Curable Formulations

Abstract: The present work addresses a strong market demand for oligomers that can be used in LED-curable formulations. Dendritic acrylate oligomers, with their hyper-branched, highly functionalized structures, are known to impart excellent properties to traditional UV formulations including increased cure speed, chemical resistance, and scratch resistance. This presentation expands on this knowledge by discussing the properties of coatings formulated with these dendritic materials when cured with an LED light source. As expected, we have found that when cured with LED these oligomers offer very fast curing, possess excellent chemical and scratch resistance, and experience less oxygen inhibition. These oligomers would then be suitable for use in LED-curable pigmented ink applications.

 




Novel Pigment Stabilizing Dendritic Oligomers

Abstract: The present work addresses a strong market demand for pigment stabilizing oligomers to obtain 100% solids, volatile organic content (VOC) free formulations. This paper discusses a new family of dendritic acrylate oligomers with different functionalities which addresses various stabilization mechanisms (pigment wetting, electrostatic, and steric stabilization). Inks and coatings formulated with these oligomers are very fast curing and prone to substantially less oxygen inhibition. They also demonstrate good adhesion to different substrates and possess excellent chemical and scratch resistance.

 


Urethane Acrylate Oligomers

Urethane Acrylate Oligomers with Hydrophilic Moieties

Abstract: Hydrophilic polyurethane polymers are important materials in the optical and medical device industries due to their anti-fog properties and biocompatibility. The ability of some to be dispersible or even soluble in water has also led to their extensive use in other fields, such as wood coatings. This paper will explore the properties of several urethane acrylate oligomers with hydrophilic moieties. The effect of the structure and concentration of such moieties on various coating properties such as scratch and chemical resistance will be investigated.

 

 

High-Performance UV-Curable Urethane Acrylate Prepolymers

Abstract: Radiation cure, and in particular UV cure of urethane prepolymers, is a viable alternative to thermal cure of cast urethane prepolymers with different curatives. Urethane acrylates based on polyols are widely used traditional radiation-curable materials. This paper describes principles of urethane acrylates (methacrylates) UV cure. Development of these prepolymers (oligomers), which meets demands of the modern coatings market, requires a resolution of a number of chemical problems, which are outlined in this paper. Properties of liquid and cured coatings, including their application in the industry, are briefly discussed. Properties range from hard, abrasion-resistant, tough coatings to soft elastomers with 10 times elongation-to-break. Physical and mechanical properties of several commercial urethane acrylate oligomers are presented.

 

 

Photoinitiators

Abstract: Photoinitiators is a popular topic of technical and scientific review articles on photopolymerization (“UV-cure”). The reason is that light-induced elementary reactions of photoinitiators (PIs) are very well understood and studied in great detail. However, these studies were performed in individual solvents. As we detail in these memos, UV-cure of solvent-less formulations is a rapid transformation of a (viscous) liquid into solid polymer.

 

 

Structure-Property Relations in UV-Curable Urethane Acrylate Oligomers

Abstract: Four urethane acrylate oligomers were synthesized by a reaction of an excess of isophorone diisocyanate (D) with polypropylene glycol Acclaim 4200N (P) with a subsequent reaction of nonreacted D with a hydroxy acrylate Tone M100 (A). The latter has a common name caprolactone acrylate. Oligomers were prepared by different ways of addition of P to D or D to P and at different ratio of [D]/[P]. The fifth oligomer ADA was prepared as an individual compound. Viscosities, GPC traces, Tg’s of oligomers were taken alongside with other physical properties of cured oligomers. It was demonstrated that oligomers with P consist of ADPDA, ADA, and of a chain-extended product A. . . Pn. . . A, which has two or more Ps in a molecule. Additive contributions of these three components essentially determine properties of the liquid and cured oligomers. Structure-property relations of urethane acrylate oligomers are discussed.

 

 

Urethane Acrylate Oligomers and UV/EB Curing: A Disruptive Technology for Traditional Urethane Prepolymers

Abstract: Radiation cure, and in particular UV cure of urethane prepolymers, is a viable alternative to thermal cure of cast urethane prepolymers with different curatives. Urethane acrylates based on polyols are widely used traditional radiation-curable materials. This paper describes principles of urethane acrylates (methacrylates) UV cure. Development of these prepolymers (oligomers), which meets demands of the modern coatings market, requires a resolution of a number of chemical problems, which are outlined in this paper. Properties of liquid and cured coatings, including their application in the industry, are briefly discussed. Properties range from hard, abrasion-resistant, tough coatings to soft elastomers with 10 times elongation-to-break. Physical and mechanical properties of several commercial urethane acrylate oligomers are presented.

 

 

Water-Reducible Urethane Acrylates: An Alternative to UV-PUDs

Abstract: UV-PUDs are widely used in coatings industry. Unfortunately, UV-PUDs contain about 60% water and shipment of large amount of water in UV-PUDs incurs substantial cost. We have developed novel water-reducible urethane acrylates (WR-UAs) which contain 10-30% of water. Customers dealing with the suggested WR-UAs can easily dilute them on site. Properties and advantages of using the original WR-UAs are discussed.

 

 

 

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